|2023||Reconfiguration of university's missions in the Europe of knowledge: the rise of the 'University of the Future'||The ideas of knowledge society and knowledge-based economy became popular as a policy idea at the end of the 20th century being assumed as a political toolto promote European integration. Although these concepts can be merely a rhetorical device, metaphor or narrative, they were transformed in specific politicalinstruments to which higher education (HE) needs to respond. Despite the constant struggle over its definition and purpose, the need to enhance the interactionbetween HE and society and to produce knowledge with and for society caused a shi in the basic beliefs about the university. From safeguard of nationalculture and instrument for social mobility, the university became an endeavour of the national, regional, and global knowledge-based economy. Thus,universities become a ‘meaningful social actor’, capable of empowering society and contribute to local and regional socioeconomic development through theengagement of professionals in socially relevant issues [1; 2; 3]. HE and science policy epistemic communities created a number of catchwords to capture thistransformation in research (e.g. mode 2, triple helix, etc.), and in teaching (e.g. continuous education, e-learning, etc.). Despite flourishing conceptual models –entrepreneurial university, university of the future –literature has yet to capture such unprecedented changes in the universities’ complex relationship withsociety and their role in societal transformation .To adapt to this shi universities applied different organisational models based on processes of convergence, isomorphism and homogenization. The ‘EuropeanUniversities’ are the most recent political tool in this strategy, aiming to strengthen the link between teaching, research, innovation and knowledge transfer,while fostering education outreach to society and economy. How is the idea of ‘European universities’ being implemented? What are the main transformationsthis idea promotes in the university missions’ (re)configuration? Which organisational models are in place to implement it?Taking an agency perspective, ‘European universities’ can be seen as an inner (re)configuration of university purpose(s) and organisational model(s). Theproject’s main aim is to understand how the political strategy of implementing a knowledge-based society in Europe is leading to universities’ reconfiguration atgovernance and management, structures and professionals’ roles level. How are universities reconfiguring their missions in society, namely the traditionalteaching and research? Which governance and management models and structures are developed to ensure that the relationship with society is fully integratedin all universities’ missions? How are HE professionals’ roles and practices changing within the reconfiguration of universities’ missions? Are there genderdifferences in these professionals’ roles and practices? How are universities managing the quality of their relationship with society?Plano de trabalhoResumo10/30
A multidisciplinary and multidimensional analytical model will be proposed drawing from different areas – political science, sociology, education sciences,gender studies, management; across multiple dimensions – political, strategic and practical; at different levels – European, institutional and individual. For adeeper understanding on how these multiple dimensions intersect with institutional and individual practices and reflect on possible consequences (for HE andsociety) of this changing relationship we will resort to both qualitative (document analysis, interviews, focus groups and a world café) and quantitative (survey)data and methods.This multidisciplinary and multidimensional analytical model will be applied to a case study of 10 Portuguese universities part of European Universities’consortia since they can be considered paradigmatic  or extreme cases  in which the pressures for institutions to become socially relevant partners inaddressing wider social challenges is even more evident. These cases may provide a better understanding on how universities develop their relationship withsociety, the tensions arising between different missions and professionals, and serve as a model of the ‘university of the future’, engaged with society and able torespond to major societal challenges.This research proposal is relevant because: 1) it addresses an important topic - the way European political ideas promote transformational changes to structuralbeliefs about the university roles and social mission; 2) it proposes an innovative approach contributing to a deeper knowledge on how institutions andprofessionals are implementing these wider intrinsic and extrinsic pressures and the arising tensions; 3) it uses a case study approach based on ‘EuropeanUniversities’ consortia, itself a novel perspective on these issues; 4) it will contribute to better institutional policies in this domain, reinforcing HE potential forsocietal change and socioeconomic development. |
|2023||Higher Education Autonomy in Europe: supranational, national, and institutional trends||This project draws on the analysis of how supranational trends are influencing HE autonomy in Europe and on how they are being translated at the national and institutional levels focusing on how its political grammar impinges on HEIs articulation of education, research, and innovation in fulfilling their missions. The project assumes a multi-level approach: European, national, and institutional. It brings forward the role states play in mediating the challenges stemming from the HE ecosystems. It is relevant to compare contexts where the state plays a stronger regulating role (France and Finland), with those where the national dimension is salient and supranational policies tend to be resisted (Poland), those where market-driven policies are more influential (the Netherlands), and those where mixed features of state regulation and institutional autonomy prevail (Portugal). The comparison of HE systems and HEIs from these countries seeks to identify the configurations they are assuming based on the analysis of governance, institutional management, and the role of the professionals in enacting their pedagogic and research autonomy. Looking at the diverse positioning of the states and at HEIs’ dynamics the project will allow broadening the views on the impact of those drivers on the autonomy of HE systems and HEIs. Thus, it aims to map out the trends transforming European HE in the last decade. The research questions are: how are supranational trends influencing HE autonomy in Europe? How are supranational trends being translated at the national and institutional levels? Do national policies reflect a stronger coordination by the state vis a vis market regulation? How are HEIs articulating education, research and innovation in fulfilling their missions? How do those trends impact on educational programmes and on the autonomy of academics to select research topics and projects?
In the project participate researchers from CIPES, from the University of Porto (CIIE), the University of Aveiro, the Nicolaus Copernicus University - Poland, the Tampere University – Finland, Leiden University – The Netherlands and Institut de Recherce en Gestion - Université Paris-Est Créteil – France. |
|2021||Dynamics of Inequality in Portuguese Higher Education System – Access, Gender, and Mobility||Recent decades have seen a massive expansion in the access to higher education (HE). One of the major developments in dealing with mass HE has been a tendency to de-regulate higher education systems (HES), allowing them to follow the interplay of the supply and demand forces. However, it has been argued that de-regulation and competition could lead to significant stratification and inequalities in HE.
There are several dimensions through which HE can reproduce or amplify inequalities. One of the potential sources of inequality is that of institutional stratification. In many systems the major issue is not anymore of access to a degree, but increasingly about the type of degree, the type of institution, the region chosen, or the field of study being chosen. This seems to be particularly relevant regarding the future benefits of HE as the job prospects and income seem to vary substantially depending on the field of study and educational institution. A second source of inequality refers to the way HE reproduces and amplifies socioeconomic inequalities. Due to the strong competition for certain programs and institutions, students and their families have adopted a variety of strategies, namely by mobilizing more resources that could place them in an advantageous situation. Moreover, others have questioned that the current system focus on certain competences and skills that do not guarantee a good academic performance of students once they enter HE. A third important dimension of inequality in a mass system has to do with the opportunities it creates according to gender. Although women’s levels of participation in HE and qualification have improved significantly, this is still not homogeneous across all fields. In particular, women are still underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professions, despite investing on average more years in education than males, which can partly justify the gender pay gap, as women miss out on high-paying careers. A fourth and final dimension of inequality refers to the number of years of study and the growing divide between those with a first-degree and those with postgraduate education and the financial advantages of the latter.
In this project we aim to study several dimensions of the dynamics of inequality in mass HE by focusing on the Portuguese system. A crucial aspect to study is the impact of the
access system and the way this is replicating and amplifying different types of inequalities. Thus, we aim to analyse the access system in Portugal and to what extent it is performing well its function |
|2022||Assessment procedures to be adopted by the regulatory agencies and the higher education assessment and regulatory structures in the CPLP member-States||The global goal of the study is to establish a reference framework for the development and consolidation of quality assurance systems for higher education in CPLP (Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries) member-States by 2030 and a set of recommendations for the future work of the Regulatory Agencies and national structures for the evaluation and regulation of higher education in the CPLP member-States. This global goal is broken down into the following specific goals:
1) Deepen the knowledge about the state of the art regarding the evaluation and regulation procedures adopted by the Regulatory Agencies and national structures for the evaluation and regulation of higher education in the CPLP member-States and carry out a survey of the norms of procedures leading to the recognition of degrees and diplomas;
2) Know the information and communication systems and technologies at the service of networking in the area of higher education quality in these countries and study the possibility of their inclusion in the interface structure of the information systems Digital Platform (PD) of ARES/CV, aiming to expand the Platform’s capacity, with the possibility of managing and processing the evaluation and accreditation process of higher education institutions;
3) Identify common indicators, that is, map, systematize, share and analyse instruments, methodologies and indicators of higher education assessment in the CPLP member-States (such as evaluation of study cycles; evaluation of scientific areas; institutional evaluation; self-evaluation; external evaluation; evaluation of teaching in the distance learning modality) and to prepare a set of recommendations for the future work of the Regulatory Agencies and national structures for the evaluation and regulation of higher education in the CPLP member-States.
4) Prepare a training plan for the staff of the ARES CPLP Space, which will enable the institutional capacity building of the Regulatory Agencies and national structures for the evaluation and regulation of higher education in the CPLP member-States.
The attainment of these specific goals will enable the establishment of the reference framework mentioned above, based on common reference indicators to be adopted by the Regulatory Agencies and national structures for the evaluation and regulation of higher education in the member-States. In turn, this reference framework will be the basis for the production of specific recommendations for:
• The establishment of a support and incentive network for technical cooperation in the field of training and development of professionals, considering the specificities and needs of the CPLP higher education Assessment and Regulation Agencies or similar bodies;
• The reinforcement of information sharing on the accreditation and regulation of study programmes and higher education institutions and the procedures leading to the recognition of degrees and diplomas;
• The encouragement of the use of information and communication technologies at the service of networking in the area of quality in higher education;
• The progress towards the establishment and promotion of a community mechanism of multilateral surveillance with the purpose to support the Regulatory Agencies and national structures for the evaluation and regulation of higher education in the member-States, based on the democratization of knowledge, the spirit of mutual support and the principle of mutual solidarity.
|2022||Mapping and socio-economic dynamics of higher education students in Grande Porto and Grande Lisboa||This study aims to focus on the two largest population centres in Portugal to contribute to the definition of policies – from the central State, the municipalities and the HEIs – that promote the improvement of the lives of higher education students in Grande Porto (GP) and Grande Lisboa (GL). It is, therefore, a matter of knowing who they are, where they are, how they live, how they move and what support conditions benefit higher education students in the areas of GP and GL. This study also aims to characterize the policies for setting the number of places in the HEIs of GP and GL to contribute to the analysis and framing of the main problems that students in these areas face.
Thus, the study intends to cover the following aspects: identification of the socio-economic profile of higher education students from GP and GL; their geographic distribution and movement patterns; their living conditions; and social support for GP and GL higher education students.
The specific objectives of this research study are the following:
Socio-economic profile of the higher education students from GP and GL
1. Know the students who attend the HEIs of GP and GL through a socio-economic characterization of their profile;
2. Know the socio-economic reality of students in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stages to understand whether dropouts from the 1st to the 2nd stage are related to that reality;
3. Identify displaced students.
Geographic distribution and population dynamics of higher education students from GP and GL
4. Map the population of higher education students living in GP and GL, particularly in the municipalities of Porto and Lisbon and in their peripheral municipalities;
5. Identify the places with the highest student density;
6. Understand whether students settle in GP and GL when they conclude the 1st study cycle and whether there are expectations to live in these cities after this period.
Travel patterns of higher education students from GP and GL
7. Identify the travel pattern of higher education students from GP and GL (reason for travel, means of transport used – metro, bus, tram, train, scooter and bicycle –, distance travelled and time spent), their expectations about the use of individual or public transport, opinion about the public transport network and connection to cycle path networks.
Living conditions of higher education students from GP and GL
8. Identify where and with whom GP and GL higher education students live (parents' home, Social Services residence, private residence, rented room, ...), as well as assess housing conditions (comfort, internet access, study space, ...).
Social support for higher education students from GP and GL
9. Identify the responses of direct and indirect social action, namely, the offer of canteens and accommodation, and analyze whether they meet the needs.
With the attainment of these objectives, the study seeks to answer the following questions:
• What is the socio-economic reality and life situation of higher education students in GP and GL?
• Where do they live and how do they get around daily?
• What are the social action responses that seek to meet students' welfare needs (from a socio-economic, psychological and health point of view)?
• What is the coverage of accommodation, food services and the transport network?
• How do these issues relate to the policy for setting places available in GP and GL?
|2021||Institutional Reform of the University Eduardo Mondlane into a Research-led University||This project consists of a research-based consultancy that aims to support the transition of the University Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) from a teaching-oriented to a research-led institution.
The project brings together an international and multi-disciplinary team of seven researchers associated with CIPES to assist the structural transformation of UEM into a research-led institution by 2028. At the heart of the project is research-capacity-building at the level of the system and its actors, including an examination of the capabilities and know-how of UEM academic and administrative staff to suggest training solutions and indicate goals (via a Roadmap).
To this end, the project adopts a participatory-action-research methodology, which can be broken down into a theory of change and a participatory mode of action, to promote a process of engagement in the change across all relevant stakeholders in the institutional transformation process. The basis of our change analysis is both theoretical (formal and informal organising, communities of practice) and evidence-based according to the tacit understandings of internal and external stakeholders relevant to UEM’s research capacity building. Hence, the organisation of the first stage of the project into five working phases: (1) Institutional document analysis; (2) Selection of interviewees and tool development; (3) Data collection (individual and focus groups interviews) and preliminary data analysis; (4) SWOT analysis and focus groups analysis; and (5) Roadmap. |
|2020||Talking about doctoral education: The perspectives of the Portuguese universities and doctoral students||Doctoral education is currently at a crossroads, characterised by the coexistence of two paradigms, one associated with a more traditional view, the other associated with a more instrumental view of what this education is, or should be.
The project aims to understand the notion or concept of doctoral education prevalent, in Portugal, in the perspectives of both universities and doctoral students. In parallel, and with the aim of framing these perspectives, the study will also promote a characterisation of the offer of doctoral education in the country. |
|2018||The impact of Higher Education Institutions on the quality of life of their regions||This project intends to take an innovative approach in the study of the impact that higher education institutions (HEI) have on quality of life (QoL) of the regions where they are located, both qualitatively and quantitatively, as well as their efficiency in the transformation of public funds, own funds and different types of human, social and organizational capitals in outputs with influence in the quality of life of the populations and sustainability of their regions of influence.
With this project, it is aimed to develop: - A system of indicators that can be used to quantify the influence of HEIs on the quality of life of populations in their regions; - A multidimensional impact matrix of HEIs on the QoL of populations in their regions; - A system for monitoring and quantifying the QoL aof the populations in the region of influence of each HEI. The results of this project will, certainly, contribute to the definition of new higher education policies by identifying the key variables and the various types of effects that can be induced by HEIs in the sustainable development of the regions and, consequently, of the country. Briefly, with this project there will be developed instruments for measuring and monitoring the effects of HEIs on the QoL of their regions, while providing information and instruments for HEIs to assess the extent to which they are responding efficiently to the needs of their stakeholders, as well as revealing the most effective ways to do it. |
|2009||An Examination of Academic Job Satisfaction and Motivation in Portuguese Higher Education||An important constituent group contributing to the culture of an institution, along with students, is the faculty or academic staff. The academic staff is a key resource within higher education institutions and, therefore, it has a major role in achieving the objectives of the institution. The centrality of the faculty role turns it into a primary sculptor of institutional culture. The performance of academic staff as teachers and researchers determines much of the quality of the student satisfaction and has an impact on student learning and, thus, the contribution of the higher education institutions (HEIs) to society. Although several studies have examined this topic around the world, little is known in the higher education context in Portugal. This study aims at identifying the issues and their impacts on academic staff job satisfaction and motivation, offering additional insights into relationships and strategies that can promote these qualities and, thus, productivity.
Project Objectives (description)
The goal is to help Portuguese higher education understand the parameters of job satisfaction and motivation in the professoriate. Objectives are to:
1. Determine the dimensions associated with job satisfaction and motivation of academic staff;
2. Analyze how job satisfaction and motivation differ among sub-groups;
3. Determine the relationships between satisfaction and motivation;
4. Provide insights from the data that will focus attention on the strengths and weaknesses of the professoriate within the system;
5. Produce documents that can be widely disseminated for the use and benefit of the HEIs in Portugal.
|2016||Learning Outcomes. From implementation to evaluation in a tripartite vision of learning outcomes: HEIs, Students and Employers||The implementation of the Bologna process has influenced the development of the quality assurance processes in many European countries. In particular, the implementation of the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, 2009) has ignited the debate about the use of generic descriptors for each of the three study cycles that is based on Learning Outcomes (LO). However, even though the relevance of LO in Bologna process, there is no explicit reference to this concept neither in the Bologna Declaration (1999) nor in the Prague Communiqué (2011). Only on the Berlin Communiqué (2003) LO are extensively referred. In this document, member states are encouraged to delineate a framework for qualifications with comparable and compatible qualifications for their higher education systems, and that should aspire to describe the qualifications in terms of workload, level, LO, and outbound skills and professional profile (European Commission, 2008).
Focusing on Adam definition (2008), LO are statements about what a student must know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate at the end of a given learning period (p. 8). In this sense, learning outcomes are described as “a fundamental building block of the Bologna educational reform” (Adam, 2006, p. 3). Emphasis is placed on what is expected a student acquire in terms of knowledge, skills and competences, according to each qualification level (Gallavara, Hreinsson, Kajaste, & Zadeh, 2008; Tissot, 2008). More than provide a description of the expected or intended learning outputs, learning outcomes should also point out how these achievements will be assessed. That is, learning outcomes should explicit not only what is expected a students will be able to do, but also the criteria that will be used to evaluate him (Adam, 2004; Moon, 2004; Wiliam, 2010). This approach helps students to identify in advance what is expected them to know, understand and perform, whether for a given study programme or for a specific class, as well as the assessment criteria that will be used.
The literature on this subject presents different descriptions and understandings about learning outcomes, rending the concept ambiguous and unclear (Aamodt & Hovdhaugen, 2008; Adam, 2008; Scott, 2011). For instance, Nusche (2008) advocates a learning outcome categorization for Higher Education, based on the division between cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, based in “what a learner knows or can do as a result of learning (p. 7).
In light of literature review, this research proposal intends to contribute to the assessment and reflection of the degree of implementation, completion and assessment of learning outcomes performed by HEI in Portugal. To do so, the international policies are analyzed, with a special emphasis being given to the European context, and using the Portuguese National Qualification Framework guidelines (Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, 2009), in order to reflect about a holistic approach to the process of designing, implementing and assessing learning outcomes in the higher education system in Portugal. Two methodological approaches will be used. In one hand, a content analysis will provide information about what knowledge, skills, and competences are emphasized by Portuguese Higher Education Institutions as a learning outcome in their curricula. In the other hand, a linguistic analysis will inform about how LO have been defined by these Institutions. |